Posts Tagged ‘twist ring’

Preparing First Collision Sim

June 22, 2017

I’ve been working fairly consistently on the simulation environment for the unitary twist field theory. I’m getting ready to set up a photon/electron collision, modeled by the interaction of a linear twist with a twist around a loop. The twist is represented by e^I(t theta – k x), yes, the same expression that is used for quantum wave functions (I’ve often wondered if we’ve misinterpreted that term as a wave when in fact the math for a twist has been in front of our noses all along).

This is a great first choice for a collision sim because in my mind there’s always been a mystery about photon/particle interactions. If the electron is really a point particle as the Standard Model posits, how can a photon that is many orders of magnitude larger always interact with one and only one electron, even if there are a gazillion electrons within one wavelength of the photon? The standard answer is that I’m asking the wrong or invalid question–a classical question to a quantum situation. To which I think, maybe, but quantum mechanics does not answer it, and I just get this sense that refusing to pursue questions like this denies progress in understanding how things work.

In twist theory there appears to be an elegant geometrical answer that I’m pretty sure the simulation will show–counting my chickens before they are in my hand, to be sure–the downfall of way too many bright-eyed physics enthusiasts. But as I’ve worked out before, the precursor twist field is an incompressible and non-overlapping twist field. If the electron is a closed loop of twists, and within the loop the twists revert back to the I direction (see previous posts for a little more detailed description), then any linear twist propagating through the loop will add a delta twist to some point in the interior of the loop. Since you cannot somehow overlap twists (there’s only one field here, you can’t somehow slide twists through each other. Each point has a specific twist value, unlike EM fields where you linearly combine distinct fields). As a result, the twist of the loop can unwind the linear twist going through it, causing the photon to disappear and the close loop will pick up the resulting linear twist momentum. This isn’t really a great explanation, so here’s a picture of what I think will happen. The key is the fact that the precursor field has one twist value for every point in R3. It’s an incompressible and unitary field–you cant have two twist values (or a linear combination–it’s unitary magnitude at every point!) at a given point, so the photon twists have to affect the twist infrastructure of the loop if it passes through the loop. It really will act a lot like a residue inside a surface, where doing a contour integral will exactly reflect the number of residues inside.

At least that’s what I think will happen–stay tuned. You can see why I chose this interaction as the first sim setup to try.


Sim Infrastructure in Place

June 2, 2017

An exciting day! I found a better working environment for sims, and very quickly was able to get some elementary particle sims up and running. I like to think I finally actually did something noteworthy by creating an easy to use infrastructure that allows me to investigate and test mathematical concepts such as the unitary twist field theory that are far too difficult to solve analytically, even with simplifying assumptions. If I had chosen physics as a career path, one major area for contribution is setting up new environments or mathematical tools that allow others to build and test theories.
I have been writing a C program but it was taking forever and I was bogging down on the UI and result display. So I took a look at the Unity gaming SDK and realized this might be a perfect way to get past that and quickly into theory implementation. It more than met my expectations!
CERN has nothing on me! Next up are Petavolt collisions! Well, not really, first I have a lot of model generation to do to truly represent the precursor field theory I’ve detailed in previous posts. In addition, the display is very coarse and needs to be refined–the cubes are nodes in discretized points on the twist.  I want to get fancier but for now it’s pretty amazing to watch as the loop twists and turns.  The funny and amazing thing is, though, I really could do a collision sim in a few hours. This infrastructure makes it very easy to set up interaction math and boundary conditions. Maybe my theory is hogwash, but this infrastructure isn’t–could I have finally made a usable contribution to science? If any of you are interested in this, send me a comment or email and maybe I’ll detail what I’m doing here.

Precursor Field Does Not Have to be Discontinuous

December 3, 2016

In trying to ferret out the properties of a precursor field that would give rise to the particle zoo and EM fields and so on, I had been working out just what this field would look like if it could form a loop. I have so far determined that it would have to reside in a orientable, unitary R3 + I vector field, the same dimensionality as the quantum oscillator field, and that to achieve E=hv quantization, quanta would take the form of twists in a background state pointing in the I direction. I figured out that a twist would curve in R3 if it formed a loop around a central background state region, because regardless of the loop topology in R3, it would always pass through a field orientation tilt toward the central I background region.

Up to now, the concept seemed to be workable, but I always have struggled with the field twist concept. I knew that in R3, you cannot have a field twist without a field discontinuity along the twist axis, which really caused me to doubt the veracity of the unitary twist theory. I know of no instance in the real universe where there’s a true discontinuity–even in black holes. To have our existence form from particles made of twists and field discontinuities has always seemed unlikely to the extreme–I have several times nearly abandoned this work because non-analytic fields seemed non-intuitive, non-differentiable, and non-geometrical.

However, when I tried to detail the specific mathematical possibilities for describing a curved twist in the R3 + I field, I discovered something quite surprising. Every mathematician probably knew this already–but when vector fields are described in four dimensions (R3 + I), axial twists can form in three of the four dimensions and not cause a discontinuity. The I orientation gives the field surrounding the twist an extra degree of freedom that removes the necessity for a discontinuity.

However, this does cause a different problem with the unitary twist theory. We all know that trying to form a soliton out of photons (an EM closed loop solution) is impossible because nothing can curve a photon into a ring. A big problem with trying to describe quantized photons out of EM waves is the dissipation problem, why doesn’t a quantized photon just radiate into nothing, thus losing the apparent quantization and conservation of energy? Currently, Standard Model physics doesn’t really provide an answer to that, but in unitary twist field theory work, I had determined that the discontinuities in a precursor field had acted as a lock that prevents unraveling of the particle, and thus may be necessary for particle stability. You can’t unravel a quantized twist in R3 (causing a particle loop or linear twist to disappear) because you would have to somehow resolve the discontinuity to the background state–and that definitely can’t be done in R3. But in R3 + I, there is no discontinuity required, and thus I think any twist configuration could disappear, thus potentially destroying the energy present in the particle.

So–which is it? We need R3 plus I to achieve quantization and closed loop twists–but R3 + I means we don’t have to have discontinuities–a far more realistic and likely representation of our universe via a unitary vector field, but with the disadvantage that what now enforces quantization? Are there solutions in R3 + I that still depend on a discontinuity for stability and conservation of energy?

Looks like more study and thinking is needed.

I’ll bet there’s a few scientists out there wondering if I could achieve something a lot more significant if I’d put all this time and energy into something worthwhile!


A Promising Precursor Field Geometry

November 29, 2016

I’ve been trying to find a geometrical description of how a unitary field twist could curve. If my hypothesis for the particle zoo arising from a precursor field is correct, the precursor field has to have a number of constraints. I’ve described what I know so far in depth in previous posts–here’s a summary of some of the basic requirements:
a: The precursor field cannot be an EM field with some sort of quantization added to it. The precursor field has to give rise to EM fields (and particles) but it has to be a continuous vector field with no magnitude (orientable only).
b: This field resides in R3 + I (same as the quantum oscillator spacetime) where quantization is achieved via twists that return to a background state pointing in the I direction.
c: There must be two connections built into the precursor field–a restoring force to I, and some kind of angular momentum transfer to neighboring field elements. This transfer force cannot be physical, otherwise field twists would not be possible since twists require a field discontinuity.
d: Field twists can be linear (eg photons) or confined to a finite space in the form of loops or knots or linked combinations of both.
e: There must be some means for a twist propagation to curve (otherwise the loop twists are not possible. I have investigated in detail various mechanisms within the R3 + I space, and believe I see a possibility enabled by the restoring force to the I dimension orientation.

The huge overwhelming problem with this hypothesis is that we appear to have zero evidence for such a precursor field or a background state or the two force connections I’ve described, the restoring force and the neighborhood connection force. I trudged forward with this anyway, knowing no-one out there would give this concept a second’s thought. I searched for possibilities in R3 + I where a loop twist could form and be stable, and for quite a while couldn’t find anything that made any sense.

I’ll tell you, I almost threw in the towel thinking this is a stupid quest. No evidence for a precursor field, no self-sustaining loop geometries that I could see, and experimental physics says any loop solution has to be too small to measure–a basic monkey-wrench in the whole unitary twist idea. I thought a lot, I’m just a dumb crackpot that doesn’t even have it wrong.

Yet something in the back of my mind says to me–when you look at the big picture, the particle zoo has to have a reductionist solution. For this existence to arise from nothing, there has to be some kind of field that gives rise to stable clumps we know as particles. For reasons I’ve discussed in previous posts, this can’t be some sort of computer simulation, nor can there be a creating entity. This all has to arise from nothing, I think–and from a deductive perspective, to me that means a single field must underlie particle formation. I’ve been able to come up with a number of constraints that this field has to have. I keep coming back to not seeing evidence for it, so I feel like I’m wandering around in a sea of ideas with no ability to confirm or deny any intermediate details of how things work. I see no realistic possibility that I could convince somebody this would work, I can’t even convince myself of that. Yet–there has got to be something. I have faith that Humanity can’t have reached the limit of understanding already!!

Not knowing what else to do other than abandon ship, I looked at R3 + I twist solutions, just about all of which couldn’t possibly work. Most fail because of symmetry issues or fail to provide an environment where twists could curve or be self-sustaining, regardless of how I describe the precursor field forces. Just yesterday, however, I happened upon a solution that has some promise. As discussed in previous posts, the restoring force to I is an enabler for quantization, but I realized it’s also an enabler for altering the path of a twist. I used the example in a previous post of how a field twist in R3 will curve if a regional part of the field is tilted in another dimension (imagine propagating a falling dominoe sequence through a sea of dominoes that is already partway orthogonally tilted). I am still checking this out, but it looks like there is one way to form the twist where this happens–if the twist loop resides in two of the dimensions of R3, and the axial twist in that loop resides in the remaining R3 dimension, but the restoring force is to the I dimension direction, the center of the loop will hold an element pointing in the I direction, thus causing all of the surrounding elements including the twist loop itself to feel a swirly (ref the Calvin and Hobbes cartoon!) that causes the twist propagation to pass through the field that is curved toward the center of the R3 loop.

This concept is ridiculously difficult to visualize, but essentially the I restoring force causes the field to always twist toward the center, regardless of loop orientation within R3. This is what the unitary twist field has to have–any other dimensional geometry simply does not provide the necessary twist curve. Believe me, I tried all other combinations–this is the only one that seems to consistently work no matter what kind of a topological loop configuration is used. Here is a pathetic attempt to draw out what I am thinking…



Precursor Field Curving Twists

November 18, 2016

I think I see the geometry of how the twists could form closed quantized loops. If there is a geometrical explanation for the particle zoo, I think this model would be a viable candidate. It has a huge advantage over all the geometric attempts I see so far, all of which have been shot down because the experimental evidence says subatomic particles have no size–collision angles suggest zero size or very tiny, yet all previous geometrical solutions have a Compton radius. This model has the ring in the R-I plane, meaning that collisions would have to hit a one dimensional line, thus appearing to have zero radius.

I have to wonder though, am I just spitting in the wind. No serious physicist would entertain primitive models like this, it’s like the old atom orbital drawings of the 60s before the quantum concept of orbital clouds really took hold. I had one physicist tell me that my geometric efforts faded out in the early 1900s as the Schrodinger view and wave functions and probability distributions really took over. Geometry lost favor as too-classical thinking.

Yet I really struggle with this. Geometry at this level implies logical thinking even if it accompanies a probabilistic theory (quantum theory). If we abandon geometry to explain the particle zoo, are we not just admitting that God created everything? Really, saying geometry cannot drive the formation of particles is like saying some intellect put them there. The reason I persist with a geometrical model is because I just don’t believe this universe was intentionally created, instead, I think it spontaneously formed from nothing. It’s very much one of the few true either-or questions–creator or spontaneous formation. If there’s a creator, I’m wasting my time since the particles are intentionally formed with a basis I cannot see–but that approach has the “what created the creator” paradox. I strongly believe that the only possible valid self-consistent solution is spontaneous creation, and that requires a logical (geometrical, in some way) explanation for the formation of particles. That is why I persist with these silly primitive efforts–with what I know, a logical derivable explanation has to be there and I’m using all my thinking efforts to try to find it.

Anyway, I think I figured out how unitary fields could produce rings from curving twists. The picture below is really tough to draw, because the arrows draw propagation direction, not twist orientation for a given point. But what I realized is that when the background state is constant, a twist will propagate linearly. However, if the background state has some rotation, trying to rotate normal to that rotation actually induces a rotation that has its maximum twist in an offset, or curved, direction. Perhaps if you imagine a field of dominoes pointing straight up, pushing one domino will cause a linear path of fallen dominoes. But if all the dominoes are slightly tilted normal to the direction of propagation, the fallen domino path will veer away from the linear path. This means that you should be able to form a twist ring if the twist line of the ring lies in the Ry-I plane, but there is a rotation in the Rx direction at the center. More complex geometries can easily form from other closed loop structures when the means for twist curvature is brought into the model.

So far, in the quest for a geometrical explanation of the particle zoo, this is what I think has to happen:
a: R3 + I
b: restoring connection to I to enable twist quantization
c: neighboring connection to propagate the twist
d: twist propagation can be altered when passing through an already tilted twist region, where this twist region is normal to the twist curvature
e: whole bunch of other issues on causality/group wave/etc etc discussed in previous posts.

I fully admit my efforts to explain the particle zoo may be primitive and too much like old 1900s classical thinking. I am thinking that twists to a background direction are the only geometrical way quantization of the particle zoo energies can be achieved. Whether that is right or wrong, I am resolute in thinking that there has to be a logical and geometrical basis for the zoo. The current searching for more particles at CERN so far doesn’t seem to have shed light on this basis, and assuming that particles just are what they are sounds like either giving up on humanity’s question for understanding or admitting they were intentionally created by something–but then what created that something? That line of thinking just can’t work. There’s just got to be a way to explain what we observe.


Precursor Field Constraints

August 31, 2016

I’m continuing to work through details on the Precursor Field, so called because it is the foundation for emergent concepts such as quantized particles and the EM field/Strong force. I mentioned previously that this field has a number of constraints that will help define what it is. Here is what I had from previous work: the precursor field must be unitary to satisfy the quantization implied by E=hv (no magnitude degree of freedom possible). It must be orientable to R3 + I, that is, SO(4) to allow field twists, which are necessary for particle formation under this theory. It must have a preferred background orientation state in the I direction to enable particle quantization. Rotations must complete a twist to the background state, no intermediate stopping point in rotation–this quantizes the twist and hence the resulting particle. This field must not necessarily be differentiable (to enable twists required for particle formation). There must be two types of field connections which I am calling forces in this field–field elements must have a lowest energy direction in the imaginary axis, such that there is a force that will rotate the field element in that direction. Secondly, it must have a neighborhood force whenever the field element changes its own rotation. I’ll call the first force the restoring force, and the second force the neighborhood force.

These constraints all result from a basic set of axioms resulting from the Twist Theory’s assumption that a precursor field is needed to form quantized stable particles (solitons).

Since then, I’ve uncovered more necessary constraints having to do with the two precursor field forces. Conservation of energy means that there cannot be any damping effect, which has the consequence that the twist cannot spread out. The only way this can occur is if the quantized twist propagates at the speed of light. This introduces a whole new set of constraints on the geometry of twists. I’m postulating that photons are linear twists which will reside on the light cone of Minkowski space, and that all other particles are closed loops. A closed loop on Minkowski space must also lie on a light cone for each delta on its twist path, which means that the closed loop as a whole cannot reach the speed of light. This can easily be seen because closed loops must have a spacelike component as well as a timelike component such that the sum of squares lies on the twist path elements light cone. This limits the timelike component to less than the speed of light (the delta path element has to end up inside the light cone, not on it).

One interesting side consequence is that a particle like the electron cannot be pointlike. The current collider experiments appear to show it is pointlike, but this should be impossible both because the Heisenberg uncertainty relation would imply an infinite energy to a pointlike particle but also because if an electron cannot be accelerated to exactly the speed of light, this forces its internal composition to have a spacelike component and thus cannot be pointlike. Ignoring my scientific responsibility to be skeptical (for example, another explanation would be massive particles are forced to interact within an EM field via exchange particles, thus slowing it down for reasons independent of the particle’s size–but if this were true, why doesn’t this also apply to photons), I have a strong instinct that says this confirms my hypothesis that particles other than the photon are closed loops with a physical size. This also makes sense since mass would then be associated with physical size since closed loops confine particle twist momentum to a finite volume, whereas a photon distributes its momentum over an infinite distance and thus has zero mass. Since collision scattering angles implies a point size, the standard interpretation is to assume that the electron is pointlike–but I think there may be another explanation that collider acceleration distorts the actual closed loop of the electron to approach a line (pointlike cross section).

Anyway, to get back on topic, my big focus is on how to precisely define the two forces required by the precursor field. I realized that the restoring force is the much harder force to describe–the neighborhood force merely has to translate the field elements change of rotation to a neighborhoods change of rotation such that the sum of all neighborhood force changes equals the elements neighborhood force. This gives a natural rise to a central force distribution and is easy to calculate.

The restoring force is harder. As I mentioned, conservation of energy requires that it cannot just dissipate into the field, and a quantum particle must consist of exactly one twist (otherwise the geometrical quantization would permit two or more particles). I’m thinking this means that a change in rotation due to the restoring force must be confined to a delta function and that the rotation twist must propagate at the speed of light, whether linearly (photons) or in a closed loop (massive particles). I suspect we can’t think of the restoring force as an actual force, but then how to describe it as a field property? I’ll have to do more thinking on this…


Basis Field–NYAEMFT (Not Yet Another EM Field Theory)

July 19, 2016

If you’ve been following along in my effort to work out details of the Unitary Twist field, you will have seen the evolution of the concept from an original EM field theory to something that might be described as a precursor field that enables quantized sub-atomic particles, Maxwell’s field equations, relativity, and other things to emerge .  I’ve worked out quite a few contraints and corollaries describing this field–but I need to make it really clear what this field is not.  It cannot be an EM field.

My sidebar on this site calls it an EM field but now is the time to change that, because to achieve the goal of enabling the various properties/particles I list above, this field has to be clearly specified as different from an EM field.  Throughout physics history there have been efforts to extend the EM field description to enable quantization, General Relativity, and the formation of the particle zoo.  For a long time I had thought to attempt to modify the Maxwell’s field equations to achieve these, but the more I worked on the details, the more I realized I was going at it the wrong way.

The precursor field (which I still call the unitary twist field)  does allow EM field relations to emerge, but it is definitely not an EM field.  EM fields cannot sustain a quantized particle, among other things.  While the required precursor field has many similarities to an EM field that tempt investigators to find a connection, over time many smart people have attempted to modify it without success.

I now know that I must start with what I know the precursor field has to be, and at some point then show how Maxwell’s field equations can arise from that.

First, it can readily be shown that quantization in the form of E=hv forces the precursor field to have no magnitude component.  Removing the magnitude component allows a field structure to be solely dependent on frequency to obtain the structure’s energy.   This right here is why EM fields already are a poor candidate to start from.   It took some thinking but eventually I realized that the precursor field could be achieved with a composition of a sea of orientable infintesimal “balls” in a plane (actually a 3D volume, but visualizing as a 2D plane may be helpful).

The field has to have 3 spatial dimensions and 1 imaginary dimension that doesn’t point in a spatial direction (not counting time).  You’ll recognize this space as already established in quantum particle mechanics–propagators have an intrinsic e^i theta (wt – kx) for computing the complex evolution of composite states in this 3D space with an imaginary component, so I’m not inventing anything new here.  Or look at the photon as it oscillates between the real and imaginary (magnetic) field values.

Quantization can readily be mapped to a vector field that permits only an integer number of field rotations, easy to assign to this precursor field–give the field a preferred (lower energy) orientation in the imaginary direction called a default or background state.  Now individual twists must do complete cycles–they must must turn all the way around to the default orientation and no more.  Partial twists can occur but must fall back to the default orientation , thus allowing integration of quantum evolution over time to ultimately cause these pseudo-particles to vanish and contribute no net energy to the system.  This shows up in the computation of virtual particles in quantum field theory and the emergence of the background zero-point energy field.

Because of this quantized twist requirement, it is now possible to form stable particles, which unlike linear photons, are closed loop twists–rings and knots and interlocked rings.  This confines the momentum of the twist into a finite area and is what gives the particle inertia and mass.  What the connection is to the Higg’s field, I candidly admit I don’t know.  I’m just taking the path of what I see the precursor field must be, and certainly have not begun to work out derivations to all parts of the Standard Model.

The particle zoo then results from the tree of possible stable or semi-stable twist topologies.   Straight line twists are postulated to be photons, rings are electrons/positrons differentiated by the axial and radial spins, quark combinations are interlocked rings where I speculate that the strong force results from attempting to pull out an interlocked ring from another.  In that case, the quarks can pull apart easily until the rings start to try to cross, then substantial repulsion marks the emergence of the asymptotic strong force.

Quantum entanglement, speed of light, and interference behavior results from the particle’s group wave characteristics–wave phase is constant and instantly set across all distance, but particles are group wave constructions that can only move by changing relative phase of a Fourier composition of waves.  This geometry easily demonstrates behavior such as the two-slit experiment or Aharonov’s electron.  The rate of change of phase is limited, causing the speed of light limit to emerge.  What limits this rate of change?  I don’t know at this point.

All this has been extensively documented in the 168 previous posts on this blog.  As some point soon I plan to put this all in a better organized book to make it easier to see what I am proposing.

However, I felt the need to post here, the precursor field I call the Unitary Twist Field is *not* an EM field, and really isn’t a modified or quantized EM field.  All those efforts to make the EM field create particles, starting with de Broglie (waves around a ring), Compton, Bohm, pilot wave, etc etc just simply don’t work.  I’ve realized over the years that you can’t start with an EM field and try to quantize it.  The precursor field I’m taking the liberty of calling the Unitary Twist Field has to be the starting point if there is one.


Geometry of the Twist Sim Math

January 5, 2015
Here is a drawing of the forces on the twist path that the simulator attempts to model.

Here is a drawing of the forces on the twist path that the simulator attempts to model.

I created a picture that hopefully shows the geometry of the simulation math described in the previous post (see in particular the PPS update).  This picture attempts to show a generator twist path about point A in red, with the two force sources F(loop) and F(twist), which are delta 1/r^2 and 1/r^3 flux field generators respectively.  The destination point D path is shown in blue.  The parametric integral must be computed for every source point on each destination point–this will give a potential field.  When the entire set of curves lies on an equipotential path, one of many possible stable solutions has been found (it’s already easy to establish that any topologically unique closed loop solution will not degenerate because the 1/r^3 force will repel twist paths from crossing each other).  There probably is a good LaGrange method for finding stable solutions, but for now I will work iteratively and see if convergence for various linked or knotted loops can be achieved.



Simulation Construction of Twist Theory

December 2, 2014

Back after dealing with some unrelated stuff.  I had started work on a new simulator that would test the Twist Theory idea, and in so doing ran into the realization that the mathematical premise could not be based on any sort of electrostatic field.  To back up a bit, the problem I’m trying to solve is a geometrical basis for quantization of an EM field.  Yeah, old problem, long since dealt with in QFT–but the nice advantage of being an amateur physicist is you can explore alternative ideas, as long as you don’t try to convince anyone else.  That’s where crackpots go bad, and I just want to try some fun ideas and see where they go, not win a Nobel.  I’ll let the university types do the serious work.

OK, back to the problem–can an EM field create a quantized particle?  No.  No messing with a linear system like Maxwell’s equations will yield stable solitons even when constrained by special relativity.  Some rule has to be added, and I looked at the old wave in a loop (de Broglie’s idea) and modified it to be a single EM twist of infinitesimal width in the loop.  This still isn’t enough, it is necessary that there be a background state for a twist where a partial twist is metastable, it either reverts to the background state, or in the case of a loop, continues the twist to the background state.  In this system–now only integer numbers of twists are possible in the EM field and stable particles can exist in this field.  In addition, special relativity allows the twist to be stable in Minkowski space, so linear twists propagating at the speed of light are also stable but cannot stop, a good candidate for photons.

If you have some experience with EM fields, you’ll spot a number of issues which I, as a good working crackpot, have chosen to gloss over.  First, a precise description of a twist involves a field discontinuity along the twist.  I’ve discussed this at length in previous posts, but this remains a major issue for this scheme.  Second, stable particles are going to have a physical dimension that is too big for most physicists to accept.  A single loop, a candidate for the electron/positron particle, has a Compton radius way out of range with current attempts to determine electron size.  I’ve chosen to put this problem aside by saying that the loop asymptotically approaches an oval, or even a line of infinitesimal width as it is accelerated.  Tests that measure the size of an electron generally accelerate it (or bounce-off angle impact particles) to close to light speed.  Note that an infinitely small electron of standard theory has a problem that suggests that a loop of Compton size might be a better answer–Heisenberg’s uncertainty theorem says that the minimum measurable size of the electron is constrained by its momentum, and doing the math gets you to the Compton radius and no smaller.  (Note that the Standard Model gets around this by talking about “naked electrons” surrounded by the constant formation of particle-antiparticle pairs.  The naked electron is tiny but cannot exist without a shell of virtual particles.  You could argue the twist model is the same thing except that only the shell exists, because in this model there is a way for the shell to be stable).

Anyway, if you put aside these objections, then the question becomes why would a continuous field with twists have a stable loop state?  If the loop elements have forces acting to keep the loop twist from dissipating, the loop will be stable.  Let’s zoom in on the twist loop (ignoring the linear twist of photons for now).  I think of the EM twist as a sea of freely rotating balls that have a white side and a black side, thus making them orientable in a background state.  There has to be an imaginary dimension (perhaps the bulk 5th dimension of some current theories).  Twist rotation is in a plane that must include this imaginary dimension.  A twist loop then will have two rotations, one about the loop circumference, and the twist itself, which will rotate about the axis that is tangent to the loop.  The latter can easily be shown to induce a B field that varies as 1/r^3 (formula for far field of a current ring, which in this case follows the width of the twist).  The former case can be computed as the integral of dl/r^2 where dl is a delta chunk of the loop path.  This path has an approximately constant r^2, so the integral will also vary as r^2.  The solution to the sum of 1/r^2 – 1/r^3 yields a soliton in R3, a stable state.  Doing the math yields a Compton radius.  Yes, you are right, another objection to this idea is that quantum theory has a factor of 2, once again I need to put that aside for now.

So, it turns out (see many previous posts on this) that there are many good reasons to use this as a basis for electrons and positrons, two of the best are how special relativity and the speed of light can be geometrically derived from this construct, and also that the various spin states are all there, they emerge from this twist model.  Another great result is how quantum entanglement and resolution of the causality paradox can come from this model–the group wave construction of particles assumes that wave phase and hence interference is instantaneous–non-causal–but moving a particle requires changing the phase of the wave group components, it is sufficient to limit the rate of change of phase to get both relativistic causality and quantum instantaneous interference or coherence without resorting to multiple dimensions or histories.  So lots of good reasons, in my mind, to put aside some of the objections to this approach and see what else can be derived.

What is especially nice about the 1/r^2 – 1/r^3 situation is that many loop combinations are not only quantized but topologically stable, because the 1/r^3 force causes twist sections to repel each other.  Thus links and knots are clearly possible and stable.  This has motivated me to attempt a simulation of the field forces and see if I can get quantitative measurements of loops other than the single ring.  There will be an infinite number of these, and I’m betting the resulting mass measurements will correlate to mass ratios in the particle zoo.  The simulation work is underway and I will post results hopefully soon.


PS: an update, I realized I hadn’t finished the train of thought I started this post with–the discovery that electrostatic forces cannot be used in this model.  The original attempts to construct particle models, back in the early 1900s, such as variations of the DeBroglie wave model of particles, needed forces to confine the particle material.  Attempts using electrostatic and magnetic fields were common back then, but even for photons the problem with electrostatic fields was the knowledge that you can’t bend or confine an EM wave with either electric or magnetic fields.  With the discovery and success of quantum mechanics and then QFT, geometrical solutions fell out of favor–“shut up and calculate”, but I always felt like that line of inquiry closed off too soon, hence my development of the twist theory.  It adds a couple of constraints to Maxwell’s equations (twist field discontinuities and orientability to a background state) to make stable solitons possible in an EM field.

Unfortunately, trying to model twist field particles in a sim has always been hampered by what I call the renormalization problem–at what point do you cut off the evaluation of the field 1/r^n strength to prevent infinities that make evaluation unworkable.  I’ve tried many variations of this sim in the past and always ran into this intractable problem–the definition of the renormalization limit point overpowered the computed behavior of the system.

My breakthrough was realizing that that problem occurs only with electrostatic fields and not magnetic fields, and finding the previously mentioned balancing magnetic forces in the twist loop.  The magnetic fields, like electrostatic fields,  also have an inverse r strength, causing infinities–but it applies force according to the cross-product of the direction of the loop.  This means that no renormalization cutoff point (an arbitrary point where you just decide not to apply the force to the system if it is too close to the source) is needed.  Instead, this force merely constrains the maximum curvature of the twist.  As long as it is less that the 1/r^n of the resulting force, infinities wont happen, and the curve simulation forces will work to enforce that.  At last, I can set up the sim without that hokey arbitrary force cutoff mechanism.

And–this should prove that conceptually there is no clean particle model system (without a renormalization hack) that can be built from an electrostatic field.  A corollary might be–not sure, still thinking about this–that magnetic fields are fundamental and electrostatic fields are a consequence of magnetic fields, not a fundamental entity in its own right.  The interchangability of B and E fields in special relativity frames of reference calls that idea into question, though, so I have to think more about that one!  But anyway, this was a big breakthrough in creating a sim that has some hope of actually representing twist field behavior in particles.


PPS:  Update–getting closer.  I’ve worked out the equations, hopefully correctly, and am in the process of setting them up in Mathematica.  If you want to make your own working sim, the two forces sum to a flux field which can be parametrically integrated around whatever twist paths you create.  Then the goal becomes to try to find equipotential curves for the flux field.  The two forces are first the result of the axial twist, which generates a plane angle theta offset value Bx = 3 k0 sin theta cos theta/r^3, and Bz = k0 ( 3 cos^2 theta -1)/r^3.  The second flux field results from the closed loop as k0 dl/r^2).  These will both get a phase factor, and must be rotated to normalize the plane angle theta (some complicated geometry here, hope I don’t screw it up and create some bogus conclusions).  The resulting sum must be integrated as a cross product of the resulting B vector and the direction of travel around the proposed twist path for every point.

Finally–A Particle Twist Solution Methodology

April 8, 2014

About six months ago, I was able to show qualitatively that the twist field had more than one stable solution, which implies that it could represent more than just the photon and electron variants.  I was easily able to show that any set of closed contours (twist paths) were topologically equivalent as long as no contour crosses, and the unitary field twist theory meets this constraint because twist paths are central force attractive (1/r^2 magnitude) but are repulsive by 1/r^3, so the sum is asymptotically repulsive as a twist path approaches another twist path.  This was a big breakthrough because now any interlinked loops or knots become unique and stable solutions, opening the door for representing the particle zoo.

I thought, great, now all I have to do is get some quantitative solutions and determine the relative mass to the twist field ring, and that would prove (or disprove, perhaps) the whole twist field concept.

Turns out, that is an extraordinarily difficult problem, and I’ve spent the last six months trying to figure out how to do it.  I finally figured out a crude iterative way to do it.

You would think this is a simple LaGrange mechanics problem, but my in-depth study seems to show this isn’t a workable approach.  The contour potential energy must be computed at every point, and is the integral of all other points of the entire contour set.  In fact, this problem has a stunning similarity to Feynman path integrals, with the complication that everything (all contour points) can move in 3D+T.  It cannot be assumed that the contours are symmetric, in fact if this indeed does model real particles, it’s easy to show that most solutions are not symmetric (contours are identical but displaced or rotated).  Worse, it’s likely many solutions are not stable in time, so methodologies invoking gauge invariance can’t be used here.

It was almost immediately obvious that trying to find a minimum path for the contour in the 1/r^2 – 1/r^3 field wouldn’t work (the field is an integral of all contours, but the contour path changes in each delta time), hence the LaGrange mechanics couldn’t be used in practice, the resulting differential equations would be phenomenally complex.  Simple iterative methods don’t work because there are constraints that are not really workable in an array  simulation–the energy of a loop must remain constant, so its length may not vary–but assuming constant spacing of simulation nodes doesn’t work for several reasons.  First, the solution loop length is not known, and fixing it defeats the goal of quantitatively finding that length.  Second, applying iterations to a chain of segments means that moving one segment means that a large set of adjacent segments also has to move instantaneously–not impossible, but each segment also has its own movement directives, which then would recursively affect the original movement directive.  I thought, well, let’s just make the segments stretchable, but adding that into the vector field complicates the computation significantly and appears to destroy the actual force balance between contour elements.  It’s a mess, believe me, I tried.

The approach I came up with is to just find any topologically equivalent set of contours and just start with that.  Compute the vector field neighborhood around each contour node and  then adjust each contour at each contour point until the vector field has minimal magnitude on each contour point.  Yes, there is considerable danger that doing this method of  iteration of contours will not be stable and converge, but I can see several outcomes that should yield valuable information anyway.  First, if nearly all vector field magnitudes point outwards (or all inwards), this means that the contour energies (and hence loop length) should be adjusted, so closure to a stable mass value should be possible regardless of the stability of the contour path shape iteration.  Second, there are many topologically unique solutions–that is already trivial to see.  If one contour set isn’t timewise stable or does not converge, either a different contour set could be tried or data from the iteration could be used to find a better starting point for the contour path.

I will put together a new sim (technically no longer a sim, but a generator) that does this contour vector field neighborhood and makes it easy to adjust the contour paths.  I have no doubt that over time I will come up with better and faster methods to arrive at solutions.


UPDATE:  Some additional thinking showed that taking a vector field derivative will yield the contour normal, and the direction will directly give the desired expansion directive.  It would be nice if the normal magnitude would also give the minima that would establish the optimized twist path, but it won’t–it will only give the minimum for that point given that the rest of the contour paths are unchanged.  As soon as any other portion of the paths change, this minimum will also change.  Perhaps there is a LaGrange multiplier scheme that will work to find the minima for all points on all paths.  I’m quickly sensing that there are a number of mathematical tools that can be brought to bear on this problem.